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A. 164 Members since 29 July 2016 with the date of accession to the WTO. Click on any Member to view important information on trade statistics, WTO commitments, disputes, trade policy reviews and notifications. Geneva (Switzerland), where the WTO is headquartered, is a unique place with many United Nations and other international organizations as well as missions to the WTO. The Centre William Rappard (CWR) is the name of the building that has housed the WTO Secretariat since the creation of the WTO in 1995. It is the place where consultations, negotiations and other meetings between members take place, and includes facilities such as meeting rooms and offices, as well as other facilities such as the gym, cafeteria and a bank. This was the largest negotiating mandate ever agreed for trade: the talks aimed to extend the trading system to several new areas, in particular trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all original GATT articles could be examined. [30] The Final Act concluding the Uruguay Round and formally establishing the WTO regime was signed on April 15, 1994 at the Ministerial Meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco, and is therefore known as the Marrakesh Agreement. [31] Seven rounds of GATT negotiations (1949 to 1979) have taken place. The first genuine GATT trade cycles (1947-1960) focused on further tariff reductions.

Then, in the mid-sixties, the Kennedy Round produced a GATT anti-dumping agreement and a section on development. The Tokyo Round of the seventies was the first major attempt to remove trade barriers that do not exist in the form of tariffs and to improve the system by adopting a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers that, in some cases, interpreted existing GATT rules and, in other cases, are completely new. Since not all GATT members accepted these plurilateral agreements, they were often informally referred to as “codes”. (With the Uruguay Round, several of these codes were amended and converted into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO Members. Only four of them remained plurilateral (those relating to government procurement, beef, civil aircraft and dairy products), but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the agreements on beef and dairy products, leaving only two. [27]) Despite attempts in the mid-1950s and 1960s to establish some form of institutional mechanism for international trade, the GATT functioned provisionally for nearly half a century as a semi-institutionalized multilateral treaty regime. [28] The final phase of accession includes bilateral negotiations between the candidate country and other members of the Working Party on Concessions and Commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services. The new Member`s obligations are to apply equally to all WTO Members under normal non-discrimination rules, even if negotiated bilaterally. [95] For example, following its accession to the WTO, Armenia offered a flat-rate customs duty of 15% for access to its product market. Apart from the fact that collective bargaining is ad valorem, there are no specific or composite tariffs. In addition, there are no tariff quotas for industrial and agricultural products.

[97] Armenia`s growth in economic and trade performance has been noted since its first review in 2010, particularly its recovery from the 2008 global financial crisis with an average annual GDP growth rate of 4%, despite some fluctuations. The Armenian economy has been characterized by low inflation, poverty reduction and substantial progress in strengthening its macroeconomic stability, with trade in goods and services, equivalent to 87% of GDP, playing an increasing role. [98] In May 2020, CEO Roberto Azevedo announced that he would resign on August 31, 2020. [118] As of October 2020[update], an appointment and selection process with eight candidates is currently underway and the final selection is scheduled for 7 November 2020 with the consensus of 164 member countries. [119] A strong consensus had formed around Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala`s candidacy, but on October 28, it turned out that the U.S. representative had vetoed her nomination. [120] Once all the necessary background information has been obtained, the working group focuses on issues of divergence between WTO rules and the applicant`s international and domestic trade policy and laws. The Working Party defines the conditions for the accession of the eligible country to the WTO and may consider transitional periods to give countries some leeway to comply with WTO rules. [88] Geneva is ideally located at the gateway to the Alps and at the western end of Lake Geneva. It houses the European headquarters of the United Nations, the headquarters of the Red Cross and about 20 other international organizations. It also houses the permanent representations of more than 160 countries that represent their governments in the city`s international organizations.

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