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Russian for Agreement


The authors concluded that feature marking does not play a role in gender matching and described an explanation based on the inflection differences between Italian and French. However, this explanation was undermined by Anton-Mendez et al. (2002), who conducted a production study on Spanish. Spanish is similar to Italian in terms of adjective inflections, but the results were the same as in French. In addition, Vigliocco and Zilli (1999) and Franck et al. (2008) have shown in a series of experiments in Italian, Spanish and French that the morphophonological properties of the head influence the error rate to attract gender matches. As in the number correction studies, there were fewer errors when the heads had regular diffractions, but no similar effect was found for the attractors. The main effect of grammaticality is significant when analyzing topics and elements in regions 5 to 6: ungrammatical conditions are read more slowly than grammatically. The main effect of gender matching is significant only in the analysis of subjects from regions 4 to 6.

The interaction between grammar and gender correspondence is not significant in any region, so even these conditions show no appeal to agreement. In this experiment, participants first saw a predicate, and then on the next slide a topic where they were asked to produce a complete sentence. In half of the cases, the predicates did not match the topic in terms of gender, and participants were asked to change them. As in the B&K study, the subject`s nominal expressions have always been constructed according to the following scheme: NP1-Preposition-NP2, e.B. okno vo dvor “windowN.SG to yardM.SG”. NP1 was always nominative singular, NP2 was singular accusative. We selected inanimate names that have the same form in accusative and nominative, as this inflates the error rate (Badecker and Kuminiak, 2007). As in many other studies on the attractiveness of agreements, we had both auxiliary and argumentative PPs. To explain how marking effects can occur, we summarize various factors that have been shown to play a role in recovery. More stable head names are more likely to be recovered than less stable names. Structurally accessible attractors that look like patterns are more likely to be recovered than attractors without these features.

This applies to both production and understanding. And regardless of these factors, marked traits are more likely to be recovered. When we encounter a certain verbal form and construct a series of recovery indices based on it, different numbers or gender characteristics do not compete with each other: we are always looking for a certain value. In the production we must find the value of the sexual characteristic of the NP subject, there is no value indicated in advance, so that different values can enter the competition14. Thus, production does not involve competition and understanding, so we can observe characteristic marking effects in production, but not in understanding. For this reason, the results of production and understanding of the gender agreement are different. We observe no difference in the case of a match of numbers, since the plural is both a more stable and marked characteristic. This is a very preliminary hypothesis, so further experiments are needed to test it or to propose an alternative explanation for the observed asymmetry between production and understanding results. Based on the parallel results of number constriction attraction experiments, most authors assume that the same attraction mechanisms underlie production and understanding. Tanner et al.

recently took the opposite view (2014). They claim that the mechanisms responsible for attraction in comprehension are a subset of those involved in production. In particular, they argue that attraction in understanding is due to recovery interference, while attraction in production is best described by the representation narrative, namely by the marking and morphing model (Eberhard et al., 2005), although recovery interference is also present. While interest in determining the draft NATO-Russia agreement on intermediate-range missiles may grow, there will be no interest in the draft provision of the US-Russia treaty that would effectively ban US intermediate-range missiles from Europe, while leaving Russia free to deploy such missiles against NATO countries. The provision, which limits the ability of heavy bombers and surface warships to operate in and over international waters, will not find fans in Washington or the Russian military. Several studies (e.B. Nicol et al., 1997; Pearlmutter et al., 1999) suggested that ungram illusions appear. Wagers et al. (2009) showed that at least online results can be artificial (they could be due to the fact that the processing of plural nouns entails additional costs compared to singular nouns, and not aspects of the processing of subject-verb agreements). This hypothesis can be tested by analyzing some cases where this problem does not apply, and we do so in this study, which deals with gender matching3.

Nicol, J., Foster, K., and Veres, C. (1997). Subject-verb correspondence process in comprehension. J. Mem. Long. 36, 569–587. Anton-Mendez, M. I., Nicol, J., and Garrett, M.

F. (2002). The relationship between sex and the treatment of number agreements. Syntax 5, 1–25. doi: 10.1111/1467-9612.00045 While we look at binary characteristics or cases where attraction is observed in all combinations of characteristics (as in production experiments in Slovak and Russian), we can only use indirect evidence to estimate the contribution of head and attractor characteristics to the tuning process. . . .

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